Updated and republished for macOS 10.15.3; skip it unless you really really care about all the macOS releases. Originally published on November 14th, 2005.
Below the break is a table showing all major releases of macOS (previously Mac OS X) from the public beta through the latest public version, which is macOS 10.15.3, as of January 28th, 2020—the 131st release in total.
Note: Click the ⓘ symbol to read Apple’s release notes for a given update.
What follows is a lengthy dive into a semi-recent massive performance improvement in openssl speeds in macOS. As it’s long, here’s a tl;dr version:
From 10.14.4 to 10.14.5, a change in macOS improved openssl speed benchmark results anywhere from 15x to 30x.
In real world use, encryption of a large sample file (570MB) using a very long password happened nearly twice as quickly as it did before the update.
The version number for openssl (which is really LibreSSL) is the same (2.6.5) in both 10.14.4 and 10.14.5. I also confirmed that the packages, as loaded on the Apple Open Source site, are identical.
The four libraries that openssl links to have the same version numbers in 10.14.4 and 10.14.5.
The binaries for openssl and the four linked libraries all use much less disk space in 10.14.5 than they did in 10.14.4. I can’t explain this, except that openssl itself is no longer a universal binary.
I believe the performance boost is due to macOS enabling Intel’s AES-NI, which allow hardware acceleration of some key cryptography tasks. But I can’t figure out how this change was made, given the above data.
The Apple Open Source site may hold the answers, but that work is beyond my skill level.
Keep reading if you’d like to see how I came to the above summary…
I have no plans to move my main iMac to macOS Catalina, at least for the forseeable future. There are two key apps I use—Fujitsu’s ScanSnap scanner software and the Many Tricks’ accounting app—that are both 32-bit. In addition, there are changes in Catalina relative to permissions that make it somewhat Vista like and slow down my interaction with the system. (My MacBook Air is my “production” Catalina Mac, and I have an older retina MacBook Pro that I use for Catalina betas.)
But Apple really wants people to update to Catalina, so they let you know about Catalina…constantly, it seems. In System Preferences > Software Update, you’ll see this…
And while that’s annoying, it’s not nearly as annoying as the red “1” dot they stick on System Preferences, which will stare at you forever. I complained about this on Twitter, and as is often the case, some very bright people had solutions to the problem.
A fair number of my apps are still 32-bit—see how many you still have—though many I don’t really care about all that much. But there’s one suite of apps that I use every day, usually multiple times a day: Fujitsu’s ScanSnap apps. This is the software bundled with the ScanSnap ix500 scanner.
While Fujitsu has been good about updating their software in the past, I was a bit concerned about the upcoming 64-bit transition. So I both tweeted at them and sent them an email. I haven’t seen a reply on Twitter, but a (clearly form letter) reply to my email is at least somewhat encouraging:
There is no problem in the behavior of the application or the OS concerned. The message is only inform that the application needs to be modified for compatibility with next-generation macOS (which should be available near the end of the year). PFU is going to resolve this, but the resolution date is not set yet. In the meantime, please continue using the latest version of the software available.
This blurb was obviously prepared as a response to those complaining about the new 32-bit warning dialog in macOS 10.13.4, but it does seem to address the longer-term question: Fujitsu is planning to “resolve this,” which hopefully implies 64-bit versions are in our future, though at some not-yet-disclosed date.
There are very few things in my workflow that I couldn’t replace…but replacing my ScanSnap and everything it does for me would be quite difficult. Hopefully we’ll see a 64-bit ScanSnap suite before this fall’s deadline.
I thought “Well, that’s an easy question to answer—via the Mac App Store, of course.” As it turns out, that’s the right answer, but it was much harder to find than I expected it to be. I started on the Purchased tab in the Mac App Store app, where you can (theoretically) see all past purchases, including prior Mac OS X versions. However, those old releases stop with Mac OS X El Capitan from 2015; neither Sierra nor High Sierra are listed.
Next I tried searching the Mac App Store for Sierra, but that nets only Server and High Sierra, and a few apps that appear to have gotten away with using “Sierra” in their descriptions:
I then tried the Apple Developer site, but they don’t offer Sierra for download either.
Somewhat stumped, I then started searching, and after way too many attempts, I finally landed on this useful page at Stack Exchange, which attempts to explain how to download all older versions of Mac OS X/macOS. Here’s the relevant bit for Sierra:
For OS versions since Sierra.
Sierra itself has now vanished from everybody’s Purchase History. However, Apple are keeping Sierra fully available, even though High Sierra is out. No Apple ID is required.
Given how much trouble I had finding this page, I thought I’d post it here for anyone looking for Sierra. Going forward, keep that Stack Exchange link handy, as it should be updated in the future as new releases come out.
Apple has announced that 32-bit apps have a limited future on the Mac: They’ll be fully supported in this fall’s High Sierra release; macOS’ 2018 release (“Really High Sierra”) will “aggressively warn” users about 32-bit apps, and I would assume, they won’t work at all in the 2019 version of macOS (“That Was My Skull!”).
But how do you know which apps on your Mac are 32-bit and which are 64-bit? MacObserver has an article that discusses the easy way, via the System Information app—just look in the Software > Applications section, and you’ll be able to see a list of apps and a 64-bit Yes/No column. But seeing the list is all you can do—you can’t easily save the list for future reference, for instance, nor can you copy/paste the info to another app.
So here’s a geekier solution to generate a list of your 32-bit apps, saved into a text file for easy future reference. Open Terminal, and paste this command:
This does the same thing as the System Information app, but it dumps the data in text form; the greater-than sign redirects the output to a text file named non64bit.txt, saved to your desktop. The grep is used to show only the 32-bit applications (the full line reads 64-Bit (Intel): No), and the -B and -A options are added to capture the lines before and after that line in the output.
This is probably not overly useful to most people, but I wanted a way to capture the list of apps, as I have over 290 32-bit apps on my machine, and it takes a while to run the System Information report each time.
If you have certain System Preferences panels that you access a lot, and you’re a Dock person (as opposed to a ⌘-Space and type person), here’s a little timesaver: You can add any System Preferences panel directly to your Dock. You can’t add it to the left side, as the individual panels aren’t applications. But they are documents, so you can add them to the right side of the dock—just drag and drop from Finder.
You’ll find the System-provided panels in /System/Library/PreferencePanes; third-party panels may appear in either your user’s Library/PreferencePanes folder, or the top-level /Library/PreferencePanes folder. Find the one(s) you’d like in your Dock, then just drag and drop.
You can, of course, keep System Preferences itself in your Dock, and then right-click to see a list of all preference panels. For those panels you access often, though, this method is much quicker.
Note that I am not in any of the target markets for a typical Mac Pro buyer—I don’t crunch huge scientific data sets, I don’t render massive 4K movies, and I’m not compiling huge programs on a daily basis. But I have always been a fan of the Mac Pro for one reason (up until the most recent one, at least): Customization. Having a customizable Mac means it can last longer, as you can make changes to keep up with technology. I have owned both the Motorola and Intel era Mac Pros, and they were truly excellent machines.
One Mac to rule them all
The older Mac Pro (and its predecessors) were—as I recently wrote—wonderful machines, because you, the user, could do so much to them. You could add RAM, of course, but you can do that to most any current Mac.
You could also choose up to four hard drives to put inside the case—no messy cables, no need to worry about a child or pet disconnecting your drive while it’s rendering a movie, etc. If you outgrew them, you could easily replace them. In my Mac Pro, I had an internal Time Machine drive (in addition to the external Time Machine drive.)
Mac OS X 10.7 and earlier: Launch whatever app you want, the OS doesn’t care.
Mac OS X 10.7.5: Gatekeeper appears, but is a benign master, defaulting to allowing apps from anywhere. You can still install and run anything without any intervention from the OS.
Mac OS X 10.8 through 10.11: The benign master is slightly less benign, as the default setting changed (somewhere in that timeframe) to only allowing apps from the Mac App Store and registered developers. You could still disable Gatekeeper completely, though, as the “Anywhere” button was still present. If you didn’t do that and tried to launch an app from outside the store or a non-registered developer, you had to click OK in one dialog box. Still not awful, but you were aware you were working outside the Gatekeeper’s happy zone.
macOS Sierra (10.12): The benign master is now clearly just the master—the “Anywhere” button is gone. (Gatekeeper can still be disabled in Terminal, if you wish: sudo spctl --master-disable.)
And when you try to run an app from an unidentified developer, you really have to jump through some hoops…
The nice thing about the reinstall is that it’s nothing like a reinstall from days of yore—you’re not starting from scratch, so you won’t have to reinstall everything when done. Apple makes this clear on the support page:
You can install macOS over the same version or earlier version, without removing your data. You don’t need to remove or disable the existing system first.
I say this with crossed fingers, but it seems that this reinstallation has potentially solved my Bluetooth issues. For the last two days, I’ve used my Bluetooth headphones without any static issues at all. In addition, none of my Bluetooth devices have disconnected. There is one comment from slajax on the original article that states this didn’t work for them:
I’ve been having the same issue but with the gen 1 track pad and keyboard. I reinstalled the OS, PRAM etc replaced them with the gen 2 key board and track pad and also had the apple store replace the bluetooth antenna but still having the same issue.
If you’ve reached the breaking point with your macOS Sierra/Bluetooth issues, it might be worth the 30 minutes or so a reinstall takes. But please, if you go this route, make sure you have a good backup first, just in case. And if it works for you, please post in the comments (either here or on the original post), so that others might see, too. I promise to do the same if my now-working Bluetooth turns out to again be not-working Bluetooth.